Is Muzara’a (Share cropping) lawful from Qur’anic Perspective?

Farooq Aziz, Noor Muhammad Jamali

Abstract


Muzara’a is basically a form of partnership for cultivation of land,
between landlord and agricultural labour. It may take different forms
depends upon the terms and conditions set by fuqahas. From the very
beginning in Islamic economic literature, its validity is a controversial
issue. The discussion in this regard is clearly divided in two schools of
thoughts, one which is recognized it and the other consider it as unlawful.
The axis of reasoning in this regard is almost based on Hadith, form
which both schools got the material for their claim.
The building of muzara’a is based on the concept of private ownership
of land, which is antecedent and the agreement of muzara’a is posterior.
It is assumed that, both Qur’an and Hadith admit the concept of private
ownership of land. Even the opponents of this act never raised any
question in this context. Their main claim is based on some Hadith in
which the act of muzara’a is being prohibited.
The real fact is that, Qur’an does not recognized the concept of private
ownership of land.And the same situation in with Hadith. Chronological
order review of related Hadith, can proved this fact, which is one of the
basic criteria of judgment of Hadith set by fuqahas. Since discussion
on Hadith in this context is quite lengthy and cannot be covered in a
paper, hence all attention is concentrated on Qur’an. In this paper effort
is being made to point out that, Qur’an does not acknowledge this
concept and the arguments given in this regard from Qur’an are just
based on deceptions. Negations of this concept automatically demolish
the building of muzara’a. Hence at least from Qur’an legality of muzara’a
cannot be proved.

Keywords: Muzara’a, Qur’an, Hadith, Verses.

 


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