Dr. Irfan Hameed, Dr. Siraj Jamal Siddiqui, Dr. Javed Hussain


Purpose - This research paper explores the mediating role of attitude towards the advertisement and attitude towards the brand in the relationships between disparagement as a processing stimulus for humor in advertising and purchase intention of the customer.

Design/Methodology/Approach - Data has been collected from 202 individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, moderation and mediation analysis have been applied and a good fit between the data and tested model was observed. As predicted, purchase intention was positively related with disparagement and full mediation effect has been found. The results of moderation analysis are quite interesting and have been presented with the help of a chart showing interaction effect.

Findings - Findings provide media agencies with an insight into the audience emotional consequences in exposure to disparagement used in advertisements. Findings are particularly salient for national and multinational media agencies in Pakistan as well in the other parts of the world.

Originality/Value - This is one of the first studies to provide empirical support for the relationships between disparagement and purchase intention in Western and non-Western (Pakistani) context.


Full Text:



Aaker, D. A. & Keller, K. L. (1990). Consumer evaluations of brand of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 27-41.

Andrews, J. C., & Shimp, T. A. (1990). Effects of Involvement, Argument Strength, and Source Characteristics on Central and Peripheral Processing of Advertising. Psychology and Marketing, 7(3), 195–214.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Batra, R., & Ray, M. L. (1986). Situational effects of advertising repetition: the moderating influence of motivation, ability, and opportunity to respond. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 432-445.

Beard, F. (2010). Comparative advertising wars: an historical analysis of their causes and consequences. Journal of Macromarketing, 30(3), 270-286.

Byer, W. J., & Cooke, E. F. (1985). Comparative advertising’s dilemma: how to attack the competition without alienating his customer. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2(3), 67-71.

Chang, C. (2007a). Diagnostic advertising content and individual differences: testing a resource-matching perspective with a Taiwanese sample. Journal of Advertising, 36(3), 75-84.

Chang, C. (2007b). The relative effectiveness of comparative and noncomparative advertising. Journal of Advertising, 36(1), 21-35.

Chattopadhyay, A., & Basu, K. (1990). Humor in advertising: The moderating role of prior brand evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(4), 466–476.

Cho, H. G., & Stout, P. A. (1993). An extended perspective on the role of emotion in advertising processing. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, 692–697.

Dianoux, C., Herrmann, J., & Zeitoun, H. (2013). Comparative advertising: citing or not the leading brand and its price. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(4), 345–354.

Dro¨ge, C. (1989). Shaping the route to attitude change: central versus peripheral processing through comparative versus noncomparative advertising. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 1 93-204.

Eisend, M. (2009). A meta-analysis of humor in advertising. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(2), 191–203.

Fei, X. (2008). The moderating effects of product involvement on situational brand choice. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(2), 85-94.

Ferguson, M. A., & Ford, T. E. (2008). Disparagement humor: A theoretical and empirical review of psychoanalytic, superiority, and social identity theories. International Journal of Humor Research, 21(3), 283-312.

Grewal, D., Kavanoor, S., Fern, E. F., Costley, C., & Barnes, J. (1997). Comparative versus noncomparative advertising: a meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 61(4), 1-15.

Lennox, R. D., & Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 46(6), 1349-1364.

MacInnis, D. J., & Jaworski, B. J. (1989). Information processing from advertisements: toward an integrative framework. Journal of Marketing, 53(4), 1-23.

MacInnis, D. J., Moorman, C., & Jaworski, B. J. (1991). Enhancing and measuring consumers’ motivation, opportunity, and ability to process brand information from ads. Journal of Marketing, 55, 32-53.

Muehling, D. D., Stoltman, J. J., & Grossbart, S. (1990). The impact of comparative advertising on levels of message involvement. Journal of Advertising, 19(4), 41-50.

Nabi, R. L., Moyer-Guse´e, E., & Byrne, S. (2007). All Joking Aside: A Serious Investigation into the Persuasive Effect of Funny Social Issue Messages. Communication Monographs, 74(1), 29–54.

Pechmann, C., & Esteban, G. (1994). Persuasion processes associated with direct comparative and noncomparative advertising and implications for advertising effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2(4), 403-432.

Pechmann, C., & Stewart, D. W. (1990). The effects of comparative advertising on attention, memory, and purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2), 180-191.

Pillai, K. G., & Goldsmith, R. E. (2008). How brand attribute typicality and consumer commitment moderate the influence of comparative advertising. Journal of Business Research, 61(9), 933-941.

Priester, J. R., Godek, J., Nayakankuppum, D. J., & Park, K. (2004). Brand congruity and comparative advertising: when and why comparative advertisements lead to greater elaboration. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(1-2), 115-123.

Rathneshwar, S., Warlop, L., Mick, D. G., & Seeger, G. (1997). Benefit salience and consumers’ selective attention to product features. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14, 245-259.

Sasser, S. L., & Koslow. S. (2008). Desperately seeking advertising creativity: Engaging an imaginative" 3Ps" research agenda. Journal of Advertising, 37(4), 5-20.

Snyder, M. (1974). The self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 526-537.

Sparks J. V., & Lang, A. (2014). Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Sexy and Humorous Content in Advertisements. Communication Monographs, 1-29.

Swani, K., Weinberger, M. G., & Gulas, C. S. (2013). The Impact of Violent Humor on Advertising Success: A Gender Perspective. Journal of Advertising, 42(4), 308-319.

Tannenbaum, P. H. (1955). The indexing process in communication. Public Opinion Quarterly, 19(3), 292-302.

Wang, Z., Solloway, T., Tchernev, J. M., & Barker, B. (2012). Dynamic motivational processing of ant marijuana messages: Coactivation begets attention. Human Communication Research, 38(4), 485–509.

Yi, Y. (1990). Cognitive and Affective Priming Effects of the Context for Print Advertisements, Journal of Advertising, 19, 40-48.

York, E. B. (2009). The gloves are off: more marketers opt for attack ads. Advertising Age, 80(19), 4.

Zhang, Y. & Zinkhan, G. (2006). Humor in Television Advertising: Does Audience Involvement Matter? Journal of Advertising, 35(4), 113-127.

Zhang, Y. (1996). Responses to humorous advertising: The moderating effect of need for cognition. Journal of Advertising, 25(1), 15–32.


  • There are currently no refbacks.